C++ is a programming language that is an extension of an earlier language, C. For the most part, we will use the C subset of C++ in this course because it provides the tools that we need to explore physical data structures. A few of the language features that we will use are part of C++ but not of C. These notes make no attempt to offer a complete introduction to C++.
Java was designed to share many of its basic features with C++. The original intent was to make Java easy for C++ programmers to learn. But it also works the other way. If you already know Java, you will see familiar things in C++.
Important rule: C++ has a rigid form. Use only features that you have learned. Do not try to make up the language as you go and hope that it is right. That will take you into the swamp.
C++ is a free-form language. That means that
Places where the free-form rule is not in effect include